Image Analysis Classification and Change Detection in Remote Sensing 3rd Edition

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Image Analysis Classification and Change Remote Sensing 3rd Edition
With Algorithms for ENVI/IDL and Python, by: Morton J. Canty

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Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation

Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 6th EditionThomas Lillesand, Ralph W. Kiefer and Jonathan Chipman describe recent developments in digital image processing to the next generation of satellite systems. This text introduces students to the latest developments in the exciting field of remote sensing and image interpretation.

The text examines the basics of analog image analysis while placing greater emphasis on digitally based systems and analysis techniques. The presentation is discipline neutral, so students in any field of study can gain a clear understanding of these systems and their virtually unlimited applications.

Authors also introduce basic concepts to the interpretation and measurement of objects on aerial photographs. Consideration is given to the types of film available, typical key elements used in photo interpretation and the procedures for calculating the size of objects in distance. They present the physical basis of remote sensing and the technology to measure spectral, spatial and/or temporal variations in field strength.

Stress is placed on laboratory work to ensure familiarity in using computer software to process, restore, enhance and interpret of imagery acquired from satellites. Increased emphasis is on digital image collection and analysis; expanded coverage of digital cameras, digital ortho-photo production, image interpretation for natural disaster assessment.

There is new material on the role of satellite systems in sensor webs; object-oriented digital image classification; a new appendix on radar signal concepts, terminology and units. New line drawings and many new black and white images and color plates are presented.

Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis

Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis 4th EditionThis fourth edition has been developed to reflect the changes that have occurred in techniques for the analysis of digital image data in remote sensing over the past five years or so. Its focus is on those procedures that seem now to have become part of the set of tools regularly used to perform thematic mapping. As with previous revisions, the fundamental material has been preserved in its original form because of its tutorial value; its style has been revised in places and it has been supplemented if newer aspects have emerged in the time since the third edition appeared. The theme of the book remains, however, on the needs of the senior student and practitioner.

The earlier editions have contained extensive material in Chapter 1 on satellite programs and sensor characteristics. Although that material is important in the context of understanding the application of image analysis procedures, the rapid development of quasi- and fully operational programs in the past decade has meant that expanding the material of Chap. 1, as required, would have distracted from the role of that chapter to introduce the reader to the nature and properties of digital image data in remote sensing. Accordingly, all of the material on satellite programs and
sensor specifications has been moved to a new Appendix A. Chapter 1 has then been completely rewritten as a stand-alone introduction to sensors in general and the data properties of importance in image analysis.

Many changes have been made throughout the book to meet the increasing emphasis on hyperspectral data and its analysis. Although much of that is contained in Chap. 13, techniques required for hyperspectral data processing are developed in the context of previous chapters, particularly new material on feature extraction tools that work well on hyperspectral data sets; they are covered in Chap. 10. Chapter 10 has been re-named. It was felt that there is too much confusion in the term Data Fusion to retain it as the title for material that is fundamentally concerned with thematic mapping from multiple data sources and multiple sensors. Chapter 8, dealing with supervised classification methods, has been substantially supplemented. Sections have been incorporated on k nearest neighbour classification, Markov random fields and support vector classifiers.

Other modifications relate to the noise adjusted principal components transformation, the definition of texture, a re-working of the contrast modification material and the inclusion of several further illustrations and problems.
The authors continue to enjoy the very strong support and understanding of their families, so important in the undertaking of this work, for which they express and record their sincere gratitude.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interestAs was noted in the previous section, the first requirement for remote sensing is to have an energy source to illuminate the target (unless the sensed energy is being emitted by the target). This energy is in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

Electromagnetic radiationAll electromagnetic  radiation has fundamental properties and behaves in predictable ways according to the basics of wave theory.
Electromagnetic radiation consists of an electrical field (E) which varies in magnitude in
a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the radiation is traveling, and a magnetic field (M) oriented at right angles to the electrical field. Both these fields travel at the speed of light (c). Two characteristics of electromagnetic radiation are particularly important for understanding remote sensing. These are the wavelength and frequency.

Introduction to Remote Sensing

1.1 What is Remote Sensing?
So, what exactly is remote sensing? For the purposes of this tutorial, we will use the following definition:
“Remote sensing is the science (and to some extent, art) of acquiring information about the Earth’s surface without actually being in contact with it. This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing, and applying that information.”
In much of remote sensing, the process involves an interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest. This is exemplified by the use of imaging systems where the following seven elements are involved. Note, however that remote sensing also involves the sensing of emitted energy and the use of non-imaging sensors.

Interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest

1. Energy Source or Illumination (A) – the first requirement for remote sensing is to have an energy source which illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to the target of interest.

2. Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) – as the energy travels from its source to the target, it will come in contact with and interact with the atmosphere it passes through. This interaction may take place a second time as the energy travels from the target to the sensor.
3. Interaction with the Target (C) – once the energy makes its way to the target through the atmosphere, it interacts with the target depending on the properties of both the target and the radiation.
4. Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) – after the energy has been scattered by, or emitted from the target, we require a sensor (remote – not in contact with the target) to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation.
5. Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E) – the energy recorded by the sensor has to be transmitted, often in electronic form, to a receiving and processing station where the data are processed into an image (hardcopy and/or digital).
6. Interpretation and Analysis (F) – the processed image is interpreted, visually and/or digitally or electronically, to extract information about the target which was illuminated.
7. Application (G) – the final element of the remote sensing process is achieved when we apply the information we have been able to extract from the imagery about the target in order to better understand it, reveal some new information, or assist in solving a particular problem.
These seven elements comprise the remote sensing process from beginning to end. We will be covering all of these in sequential order throughout the five chapters of this tutorial, building upon the information learned as we go. Enjoy the journey!

Ebook – Fundamentals of Remote Sensing

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 What is Remote Sensing? 5
1.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 7
1.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum 9
1.4 Interactions with the Atmosphere 12
1.5 Radiation – Target 16
1.6 Passive vs. Active Sensing 19
1.7 Characteristics of Images 20
1.8 Endnotes 22
Did You Know 23
Whiz Quiz and Answers 27
2. Sensors
2.1 On the Ground, In the Air, In Space 34
2.2 Satellite Characteristics 36
2.3 Pixel Size, and Scale 39
2.4 Spectral Resolution 41
2.5 Radiometric Resolution 43
2.6 Temporal Resolution 44
2.7 Cameras and Aerial Photography 45
2.8 Multispectral Scanning 48
2.9 Thermal Imaging 50
2.10 Geometric Distortion 52
2.11 Weather Satellites 54
2.12 Land Observation Satellites 60
2.13 Marine Observation Satellites 67
2.14 Other Sensors 70
2.15 Data Reception 72
2.16 Endnotes 74
Did You Know 75
Whiz Quiz and Answers 83